MENINGITIS

Apr 7, 2017,

MENINGITIS is a disease of the covering of the brain and spinal cord.

Meningitis is very serious and can be deadly.Death can occur in as little as a few hours.

 

EPIDEMIOLOGY

Since November 2016,2,528 cases and 328 deaths had been reported across 16 states of the federation in 90% local government council.

Zamfara is the most hit state since the outbreak of the disease ,with over 200 persons killed.

 

CAUSES 

-Bacterial

-Viral(mumps,measles,HIV)

-Fungal

-Parasite

-Physical injury

-Cancer

-Drugs.

 

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

-People spread meningitis by sharing respiratory or throat secretions,This typically occurs during close contact(Cough ,sneezing or kissing) OR Lengthy(living in the same household)

-Mother to child:During labor and childbirth.

-Eating contaminated foods.

-Sharing cups,plates and spoons.

 

RISK FACTORS

Age: Babies,older adults.people leaving with weak immune system has higher risk.

Community Settings: -Large group of people gathered together.

                                -College campuses.

Certain Medical conditions:Mumps ,Measles,HIV

Travel:Meningitic belt(Sub-Saharan African in dry season) and in Mecca during Hajj.

 

SYMPTOMS

-Headache

-Neck stiffness

-High fever

-Nausea/Vomiting

-sensitivity to light

-Sore throat

-loss of appetite/Thirst

Skin Rash

-Confusion.

 

SYMPTOMS IN CHILDREN

-High fever

-Irritability

-Tiredness

-Poor feeding

-Stiffness of baby's body or neck.

 

COMPLICATION

-Brain damage :confusion and coma

-Hearing Loss

-Seizures

-Kidney failure

-Shock 

-Death

 

PREVENTION

Meningitis, especially caused by certain bacteria and viruses, is preventable with vaccinations and prophylactic or preventable antibiotics and medications among those who have been exposed to the infection.

Vaccinations may be against routine infections as part of the child’s immunization programme or they may be age and immunity specific and specific for travelers to regions with high incidences of particular infections.

Routine vaccinations for children

Notable vaccines for children among preventable causes of meningitis include:

  • The mengingococcal vaccine against type C meningococcus
  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) that protects against pneumococcus infection. The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine covers over 23 strains.
  • viral causes like measles and mumps by the Measles, Mumps and the Rubella vaccine
  • DTaP/IPV/Hib vaccination that protects against Hemophilus influenza type b, diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus and polio
  • Childhood vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin or BCG has been reported to significantly reduce the rate of tuberculous meningitis

You or your child has viral meningitis and does not get better with home ... Call a doctor soon if you think you may have been exposed to meningitis. .CLICKHERE NOW

REFERENCES

1.www.webmd.com › Children's Health › Children's Vaccines

2.https://www.slideshare.net/sid469/meningitis-25933236

 

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By Adedoyin Sule (ID: DOC1089)       Comments       Rating: